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The first view considers the move for Taiwan independence as a nationalist movement. Historically, this was view of such pro-independence groups as the tangwai movement which later grew into the Democratic Progressive Party who argued that the ROC under the Kuomintang had been a "foreign regime" forcibly imposed on Taiwan.

Since the s, supporters of Taiwan independence no longer actively make this argument. It is also thought that if formal independence were declared, Taiwan's foreign policies would lean further towards Japan and the United States, and the desirable option of United Nations Trusteeship Council is also considered.

The Taiwan Independence Party won a single seat in the Legislative Yuan in the legislative election.

The Taiwan Solidarity Union was formed in , and is also supportive of independence. In , political parties and organizations demanding a referendum on Taiwan's independence formed an alliance to further their objective.

The Formosa Alliance was established on 7 April , prompted by a sense of crisis in the face of growing pressure from China for unification.

Although previously no major political faction adopted this pro- status quo viewpoint, because it is a "compromise" in face of PRC threats and American warnings against a unilateral declaration of independence, the DPP combined it with their traditional belief to form their latest official policy.

This viewpoint has not been adopted by more radical groups such as the Taiwan Solidarity Union , which favor only the third view described above and are in favor of a Republic or State of Taiwan.

In addition, many members of the Pan-Blue Coalition are rather suspicious of this view, fearing that adopting this definition of Taiwan independence is merely an insincere stealth tactical effort to advance desinicization and the third view of Taiwan independence.

As a result, supporters of Pan-Blue tend to make a clear distinction between Taiwan independence and Taiwan sovereignty , while supporters of Pan-Green tend to try to blur the distinction between the two.

Most Taiwanese and political parties of the ROC support the status quo , and recognize that this is de facto independence through sovereign self-rule.

Even among those who believe Taiwan is and should remain independent, the threat of war from PRC softens their approach, and they tend to support maintaining the status quo rather than pursuing an ideological path that could result in war with the PRC.

A similar situation arose when President Chen Shui-bian declared that there was " one country on each side " of the Taiwan Strait.

To this day, the parties disagree, sometimes bitterly, on such things as territory, name R. The Pan-Blue Coalition and the PRC believe that Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian are intent on publicly promoting a moderate form of Taiwan independence in order to advance secretly deeper forms of Taiwan independence, and that they intend to use popular support on Taiwan for political separation to advance notions of cultural and economic separation.

The third view, put forward by the government of the PRC and Nationalists of the KMT [ citation needed ] , defines Taiwan independence as "splitting Taiwan from China, causing division of the nation and the people.

Others propose a broader and more flexible definition suggesting that both mainland China and Taiwan are parts that form one cultural and geographic entity, although divided politically as a vestige of the Chinese Civil War.

The PRC considers itself the sole legitimate government of all China, and the ROC to be a defunct entity replaced in the Communist revolution that succeeded in Therefore, assertions that the ROC is a sovereign state are construed as support for Taiwan independence, so are proposals to change the name of the ROC.

Such a name change is met with even more disapproval since it rejects Taiwan as part of the greater China entity as one side of a still-unresolved Chinese civil war.

President George W. Bush reaffirmed to the world that the U. According to an opinion poll conducted in Taiwan by the Mainland Affairs Council in , When the government of the Republic of China under the Kuomintang was forced to retreat to Formosa and the Pescadores [41] Taiwan and Penghu in , several Chinese i.

The islands are often referred to collectively as Quemoy and Matsu [42] or as " Golden Horse ". Historically, Kinmen County 'Quemoy' and Lienchiang County 'Matsu' served as important defensive strongholds for the Kuomintang during the —s, symbolizing the frontline of Kuomintang resistance against the Communist rebellion.

They represented the last Kuomintang presence in " mainland China ". They were very significant in the context of the Cold War , a period from until of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and its allies and the United States and its allies.

Ever since the transition into multi-party politics i. Currently the two electorates are "strongholds" for the Kuomintang [44] due mainly to popular opinion within the electorates, rather than brute control as in the past.

Reportedly, the local government of Kinmen County supports stronger business and cultural ties with mainland China, similarly to the Kuomintang, and views itself as an important proxy representative or nexus focal point for improving Cross-Strait relations that is, in the favour of Chinese unification.

This might be accomplished in part by building a huge bridge connecting Kinmen to Xiamen, via the island of Lesser Kinmen Lieyu ; [47] already, a bridge is being constructed between Greater Kinmen and Lesser Kinmen.

In , the local government of Kinmen County unveiled a new undersea pipeline linking Kinmen to mainland China, through which drinking-water can be imported.

Within Taiwan, one camp believes that Kinmen County Quemoy and Lienchiang County Matsu should be abandoned from a potential independent and sovereign Taiwanese state.

This view aligns with the aforementioned treaties and acts that do not define Kinmen and Matsu as being part of Taiwan. The fact that the PRC propagandizes Kinmen and Matsu is evidence that this is true to at least a certain degree.

In a hypothetical scenario where Kinmen and Matsu are abandoned by the Taiwanese state, they would likely be "ceded" to the People's Republic of China via a peace treaty, officially ending the Chinese Civil War.

Also within Taiwan, a second camp believes that Quemoy and Matsu belong to Taiwan. This camp believes that the ROC and Taiwan have become one and the same.

By this logic, Taiwan effectively owns all of the same territories that the ROC is said to own. Among these territories is Quemoy and Matsu.

If a potential Taiwanese state were to be created, this camp believes that the new country will actually be the successor state to the ROC, rather than an entirely new country.

Therefore, if Taiwan independence were to be successfully achieved, then the islands of Quemoy and Matsu would hypothetically cease to be administered as "Fujian Province", and would instead simply be classified as "satellite islands of Taiwan" much in the same way as Penghu.

Despite the differing views of these two camps, there is a general understanding throughout Taiwan that Quemoy and Matsu are not part of the historical region of "Taiwan", due to having never been governed under the following regimes: Dutch Formosa , Spanish Formosa , Kingdom of Tungning , Republic of Formosa , and Japanese Formosa.

Additionally, Quemoy and Matsu experienced a unique history for several years as military outposts of the ROC, further separating the islands from Taiwan in terms of culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Political movement in Taiwan to found a state independent of "China".

Political party. For the republic in Taiwan, see Republic of Formosa. Other branches. Political parties.

Related topics. Other countries. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main articles: Kinmen and Matsu Islands. Taiwan portal China portal Politics portal. Taiwan official website. November 15, Archived from the original on November 15, Retrieved November 16, The Diplomat.

James Pach. Retrieved 27 July Current Notes on International Affairs. Canberra : Department of External Affairs. In this area of tension and danger a distinction, I think, can validly be made between the position of Formosa and Pescadores , and the islands off the China coast now in Nationalist hands; the latter are indisputably part of the territory of China; the former, Formosa and the Pescadores, which were Japanese colonies for fifty years prior to and had had a checkered history before that are not.

Bush toward Taiwan's defense. The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on Retrieved Options in the Pacific". The Heritage Foundation.

Archived PDF from the original on Free Formosans' Formosa Newsletter. Free Formosans' Formosa. Archived from the original on September 28, Pacific Affairs.

Pacific Affairs, Vol. Related Topics: Sovereignty. Taiwan Documents Project. Foreign Affairs. The Independent Formosa, Volumes Formosan Association.

Retrieved Dec 20, On this point Mr. Ozaki seems to mean that it is against the "Racial style", which is misleading So quite naturally works to applaud the "holy war" were not infrequently produced.

Moody Opposition and dissent in contemporary China. Hoover Press. Harvard University Press. Patterns in the dust: Chinese-American relations and the recognition controversy, Columbia University Press.

March—April Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 11 November For its part, Taiwan also has domestic constituencies that are sensitive to additional competition.

Most important, the shadow of Beijing falls over the talks. It would be a mistake for the U. A friendly improvement in trade is usually a good idea, but not if it is being done to bait a third party.

Taking a step toward better economic ties with Taiwan should not be perceived as degrading relations with China. First, it must be a full-spectrum agreement, including manufacturing, services, and agriculture.

The most sensitive sector is likely to be agriculture, as Taiwan has a significant body of small-scale farmers.

Instruments like a government land-bank and a reverse mortgage could do the trick, allowing a farmer to sell his land to the government in exchange for a lifetime ability to maintain the property as his residence along with 20 years of guaranteed income.

Second, the FTA would also need to be digital. Third, the U. The point here is that the U. Fourth, Taiwan could continue to tidy up with selective liberalization.

One example: Are there economic sectors where Taiwan currently has higher tariffs or trade barriers than China?

Lastly, the FTA should model and communicate. Time to start exploring what an FTA would look like. Flip Flip horizontal. Flip vertical. Select a shape None.

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Taiwan corporations need an international gateway for trade. The U. And from a U. Yet there are no talks underway or planned. For one, the U.

For its part, Taiwan also has domestic constituencies that are sensitive to additional competition. Most important, the shadow of Beijing falls over the talks.

It would be a mistake for the U. A friendly improvement in trade is usually a good idea, but not if it is being done to bait a third party. Taking a step toward better economic ties with Taiwan should not be perceived as degrading relations with China.

First, it must be a full-spectrum agreement, including manufacturing, services, and agriculture. The most sensitive sector is likely to be agriculture, as Taiwan has a significant body of small-scale farmers.

Instruments like a government land-bank and a reverse mortgage could do the trick, allowing a farmer to sell his land to the government in exchange for a lifetime ability to maintain the property as his residence along with 20 years of guaranteed income.

Second, the FTA would also need to be digital. Third, the U. The point here is that the U. Fourth, Taiwan could continue to tidy up with selective liberalization.

One example: Are there economic sectors where Taiwan currently has higher tariffs or trade barriers than China?

Lastly, the FTA should model and communicate. Time to start exploring what an FTA would look like. What would be the anti-inflationary impact?

Would Taiwan investors have greater access to U. Ever since losing control of mainland China, the Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over 'all of China', which it defined to include mainland China including Tibet, which remained independent until , Taiwan including Penghu , Mongolia known by the ROC as ' Outer Mongolia ' and other minor territories.

In mainland China, the victorious Communists proclaimed the PRC to be the sole legitimate government of China which included Taiwan, according to their definition and that the Republic of China had been vanquished.

Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May , [92] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until 38 years later, in Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated.

In , a law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families.

President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in , expressing hope that there would never be a tragedy similar to White Terror. However, in the conflict between North Korea and South Korea , which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in , escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S.

Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.

As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids.

During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September , Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.

During the s and s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology-oriented.

This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle , was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.

Until the s the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law , for severely repressing any political opposition, and for controlling media.

Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist. In , a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day.

Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.

Chiang Ching-kuo , Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began reforms to the political system in the mids. In , the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui , a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president.

A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan martial law was lifted on Penghu in , Matsu island in and Kinmen island in With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.

After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January , Lee Teng-hui succeeded him and became the first president born in Taiwan. Lee continued the democratic reforms to the government and decreased the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese.

Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity.

Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan.

Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly a former supreme legislative body defunct in , [] elected in to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa.

Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted. Reforms continued in the s.

Lee Teng-hui re-elected in , in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC. In ,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification", [] the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite.

The former favors eventual Chinese unification , while the latter favors Taiwanese independence. No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply.

On 30 September , the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country".

It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China. The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January legislative elections , while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of " mutual nondenial ".

Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization.

However, some analysts said that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC had not been reduced. President Tsai requested the international community to help Taiwan preserve its de facto independence despite the objections raised by Xi Jinping , General Secretary of the Communist Party of China PRC paramount leader.

Taiwan is an island country in East Asia. The main island is a tilted fault block , characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, and the flat to gently rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside.

The tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, and the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them highly destructive.

There are also many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits. The eastern mountains are heavily forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive.

Taiwan lies on the Tropic of Cancer , and its general climate is marine tropical. Typhoons are most common in July, August and September.

The average temperature in Taiwan has risen 1. Carbon emissions increased 0. The island of Taiwan lies in a complex tectonic area between the Yangtze Plate to the west and north, the Okinawa Plate on the north-east, and the Philippine Mobile Belt on the east and south.

The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes , mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate.

These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan more buoyant.

The east and south of Taiwan are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon Volcanic Arc and South China, where accreted portions of the Luzon Arc and Luzon forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively.

The major seismic faults in Taiwan correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes. These have produced major quakes throughout the history of the island.

On 21 September , a 7. The political and legal statuses of Taiwan are contentious issues. It has not formally renounced its claim to the mainland, but ROC government publications have increasingly downplayed this historical claim.

Internationally, there is controversy on whether the ROC still exists as a state or a defunct state per international law due to the lack of wide diplomatic recognition.

The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should Taiwan declare de jure independence.

It is the official PRC policy to force unification if peaceful unification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law , and for this reason there is a substantial military presence on the Fujian coast.

It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state, meaning that Taiwan participates in international forums under the name " Chinese Taipei ".

With the emergence of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been used increasingly often on the island.

President Tsai Ing-wen has supported the —20 Hong Kong protests and expressed her solidarity with the people of Hong Kong.

Pledging that as long as she is Taiwan's president, Tsai will never accept " one country, two systems ". Before , the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centres of power all claimed legitimacy.

This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.

Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the s.

The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that has diplomatic relations with the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan.

The United States remains one of the main allies of Taiwan and, through the Taiwan Relations Act passed in , has continued selling arms and providing military training to the Armed Forces.

As a consequence, the PRC threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their co-operation on international and regional issues could suffer.

The official position of the United States is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations.

Each year since , the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry, but its applications have not made it past committee stage.

Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China has been a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization UNPO since the foundation of the organization in , represented by a government-funded organization, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy TFD , under the name "Taiwan".

Most member states , including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.

Within Taiwan, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification or status quo, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition.

The KMT, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public.

The Democratic Progressive Party , the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC.

The president replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the " Consensus ", currently [ when?

On 27 September , Taiwanese premier William Lai said that he was a "political worker who advocates Taiwan independence", but that as Taiwan was an independent country called the Republic of China, it had no need to declare independence.

The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People , which states that the ROC "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people".

The constitution was drafted while the ROC still governed the Chinese mainland. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Communist Party boycotted the drafting of the constitution.

The constitution went into effect on 25 December Political reforms beginning in the late s and continuing through the early s transformed into a multiparty democracy.

Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China.

This process of amendment continues. In May , a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms.

These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president , who is elected by popular vote for a maximum of 2 four-year terms on the same ticket as the vice-president.

The president has authority over the Yuan. The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as their cabinet, including a premier , who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies.

Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly , as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college , held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.

The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.

After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in , legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.

This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power.

The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries.

The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. The highest court, the Supreme Court , consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life.

In , a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process.

There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Capital punishment is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions.

The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors controls the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China.

The tension between mainland China and Taiwan shades most of political life since it is the official policy of the PRC to meet any Taiwanese government move towards "Taiwan independence" with a threat of invasion.

The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan should relate to China or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations.

It regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC , opposes the definition that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence.

Thus, in September , the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a " normal country ".

It called also for general use of " Taiwan " as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China". Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC.

They favour eventual re-unification of China. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while refusing immediate reunification.

The dominant political issue in Taiwan is its relationship with the PRC. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China.

The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links.

Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July under the KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues.

Corruption among some DPP administration officials had been exposed. In early , President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption.

The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a division in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believed the president should resign.

The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world.

Taiwan's leaders, including President Tsai and Premier William Lai , have repeatedly accused China of spreading fake news via social media to create divisions in Taiwanese society, influence voters and support candidates more sympathetic to Beijing ahead of the Taiwanese local elections.

Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the late s and early s.

The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones.

Since democratic reforms and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity is often at the heart of political debates.

Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.

In a survey conducted by National Chengchi University published in of individuals over 20 who lived on the main island, Taiwan is, in practice, divided into 22 subnational divisions, each with a self-governing body led by an elected leader and a legislative body with elected members.

Duties of local governments include social services, education, urban planning, public construction, water management, environmental protection, transport, public safety, and more.

There are three types of subnational divisions: special municipalities, counties, and cities. Special municipalities and cities are further divided into districts for local administration.

Counties are further divided into townships and county-administered cities which have elected mayors and councils, and share duties with the county.

Some divisions are indigenous divisions which have different degrees of autonomy to standard ones.

In addition, districts, cities and townships are further divided into villages and neighbourhoods. It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army.

Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army.

Today, Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as a defence to the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army using the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China as a pretext.

This law authorizes the use of military force when certain conditions are met, such as a danger to mainlanders.

From to the s, the primary mission of the Taiwanese military was to "retake mainland China" through Project National Glory.

As this mission has transitioned away from attack because the relative strength of the PRC has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy.

Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.

The ROC began a force reduction plan, Jingshi An translated to streamlining program , to scale down its military from a level of , in to , in It also decided to strengthen both defensive and offensive capabilities.

Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds. However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear.

The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan Miracle ".

Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island.

The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan. By , hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan.

To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization programme. These efforts significantly slowed inflation.

The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution , attempting to produce imported goods domestically. In , with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States began an aid programme which resulted in fully stabilized prices by Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programmes, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from to , which was greater than the population growth, 3.

In , Chiang Ching-kuo implemented the Ten Major Construction Projects , the beginning foundations that helped Taiwan transform into its current export driven economy.

Since the s, a number of Taiwan-based technology firms have expanded their reach around the world. Well-known international technology companies headquartered in Taiwan include personal computer manufacturers Acer Inc.

Computex Taipei is a major computer expo, held since Today Taiwan has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade.

In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization.

The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest. Since the beginning of the s, the economic ties between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China have been very prolific.

A white paper by the Department of Industrial Technology states that "Taiwan should seek to maintain stable relation with China while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive 'Sinicization' of Taiwanese economy.

High-technology industrial parks have sprung up in every region in Taiwan. Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little compared with many of its neighbours in the Asian financial crisis.

Unlike its neighbours, South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium-sized businesses, rather than the large business groups.

The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy co-ordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in , the first whole year of negative growth since Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labour-intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the s oil crisis.

This became a major issue in the presidential election. The ROC often joins international organizations especially ones that also include the People's Republic of China under a politically neutral name.

The Ministry of Transportation and Communications of the Republic of China is the cabinet-level governing body of the transport network in Taiwan.

Civilian transport in Taiwan is characterised by extensive use of scooters. In March , There are four international seaports: Keelung , Kaohsiung , Taichung , and Hualien.

Taiwan's higher education system was established by Japan during the colonial period. However, after the Republic of China took over in , the system was promptly replaced by the same system as in mainland China which mixed features of the Chinese and American educational systems.

Taiwan is well known for adhering to the Confucian paradigm of valuing education as a means to improve one's socioeconomic position in society.

Taiwan is one of the top-performing countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences. In , Taiwanese students achieved one of the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , with the average student scoring , compared with the OECD average of , placing it seventh in the world.

The Taiwanese education system has been praised for various reasons, including its comparatively high test results and its major role in promoting Taiwan's economic development while creating one of the world's most highly educated workforces.

On the other hand, the system has been criticised for placing excessive pressure on students while eschewing creativity and producing an excess supply of over-educated university graduates and a high graduate unemployment rate.

With a large number of university graduates seeking a limited number of prestigious white collar jobs in an economic environment that is increasingly losing its competitive edge, this has led many graduates to be employed in lower end jobs with salaries far beneath their expectations.

As the Taiwanese economy is largely science and technology based, the labour market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment.

Many Taiwanese students attend cram schools , or buxiban , to improve skills and knowledge on problem solving against exams of subjects like mathematics, nature science, history and many others.

Courses are available for most popular subjects and include lectures, reviews, private tutorial sessions, and recitations.

As of [update] , the literacy rate in Taiwan is Taiwan has a population of about The remainder live on Penghu , , Kinmen , , and Matsu 12, The figures below are the March estimates for the twenty most populous administrative divisions; a different ranking exists when considering the total metropolitan area populations in such rankings the Taipei-Keelung metro area is by far the largest agglomeration.

Additional people of Han origin include and descend from the 2 million Nationalists who fled to Taiwan following the communist victory on the mainland in The indigenous Taiwanese aborigines number about , and are divided into 16 groups.

Mandarin is the primary language used in business and education, and is spoken by the vast majority of the population. Traditional Chinese is used as the writing system.

Although Mandarin is the language of instruction in schools and dominates television and radio, non-Mandarin Chinese varieties have undergone a revival in public life in Taiwan, particularly since restrictions on their use were lifted in the s.

Formosan languages are spoken primarily by the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. They do not belong to the Chinese or Sino-Tibetan language family, but to the Austronesian language family , and are written in Latin alphabet.

Taiwan is officially multilingual. A national language in Taiwan is legally defined as "a natural language used by an original people group of Taiwan and the Taiwan Sign Language".

Estimated religious composition in []. The Constitution of the Republic of China protects people's freedom of religion and the practices of belief.

In , the census reported that the five largest religions were: Buddhism , Taoism , Yiguandao , Protestantism , and Roman Catholicism.

Taiwanese aborigines comprise a notable subgroup among professing Christians: " Church buildings are the most obvious markers of Aboriginal villages, distinguishing them from Taiwanese or Hakka villages".

Confucianism is a philosophy that deals with secular moral ethics, and serves as the foundation of both Chinese and Taiwanese culture.

The majority of Taiwanese people usually combine the secular moral teachings of Confucianism with whatever religions they are affiliated with.

As of [update] , there were 14, temples in Taiwan, approximately one place of worship per 1, residents. In , Taiwan had 3, Churches, an increase of A significant percentage of the population of Taiwan is nonreligious.

Taiwan's strong human rights protections, lack of state-sanctioned discrimination, and generally high regard for freedom of religion or belief earned it a joint 1 ranking in the Freedom of Thought Report , alongside the Netherlands and Belgium.

Taiwan is clearly an outlier in the top 3, all-clear countries. It is non-European, and demographically much more religious.

But in its relatively open, democratic and tolerant society we have recorded no evidence of laws or social discrimination against members of the non-religious minority.

On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that then-current marriage laws had been violating the Constitution by denying Taiwanese same-sex couples the right to marry.

The Court ruled that if the Legislative Yuan did not pass adequate amendments to Taiwanese marriage laws within two years, same-sex marriages would automatically become lawful in Taiwan.

The current programme was implemented in , and is considered to be a form of social insurance. A standard method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.

BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases.

Only 4. During the outbreak the disease control bureaux and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas.

In , the infant mortality rate was 4. The cultures of Taiwan are a hybrid blend of various sources, incorporating elements of traditional Chinese culture, attributable to the historical and ancestral origin of the majority of its current residents, Japanese culture, traditional Confucianist beliefs, and increasingly Western values.

After their move to Taiwan, the Kuomintang imposed an official interpretation of traditional Chinese culture over Taiwan.

The government launched a policy promoting Chinese calligraphy , traditional Chinese painting , folk art , and Chinese opera. The status of Taiwanese culture is debated.

Reflecting the continuing controversy surrounding the political status of Taiwan , politics continues to play a role in the conception and development of a Taiwanese cultural identity, especially in the prior dominant frame of a Taiwanese and Chinese dualism.

In recent years, the concept of Taiwanese multiculturalism has been proposed as a relatively apolitical alternative view, which has allowed for the inclusion of mainlanders and other minority groups into the continuing re-definition of Taiwanese culture as collectively held systems of meaning and customary patterns of thought and behaviour shared by the people of Taiwan.

One of Taiwan's greatest attractions is the National Palace Museum , which houses more than , pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting, and porcelain and is considered one of the greatest collections of Chinese art and objects in the world.

The PRC had said that the collection was stolen and has called for its return, but the ROC has long defended its control of the collection as a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction, especially during the Cultural Revolution.

Relations regarding this treasure have warmed recently; Beijing Palace Museum Curator Zheng Xinmiao said that artefacts in both Chinese and Taiwanese museums are "China's cultural heritage jointly owned by people across the Taiwan Strait".

Karaoke , drawn from contemporary Japanese culture, is extremely popular in Taiwan, where it is known as KTV. KTV businesses operate in a hotel-like style, renting out small rooms and ballrooms according to the number of guests in a group.

Many KTV establishments partner with restaurants and buffets to form all-encompassing and elaborate evening affairs for families, friends, or businessmen.

Tour buses that travel around Taiwan have several TV's, equipped not for watching movies, but primarily for singing Karaoke. There, movies out on DVD can be selected and played in a private theatre room.

However, MTV, more so than KTV, has a growing reputation for being a place that young couples will go to be alone and intimate.

Taiwan has a high density of hour convenience stores, which, in addition to the usual services, provide services on behalf of financial institutions or government agencies such as collection of parking fees, utility bills, traffic violation fines, and credit card payments.

Taiwanese culture has also influenced other cultures. Bubble tea and milk tea has now become a global phenomenon with its popularity spreading across the globe.

Taiwanese films have won various international awards at film festivals around the world. Baseball is Taiwan's national sport and is a popular spectator sport.

As of [update] , the CPBL has four teams with average attendance over 5, per game. Besides baseball, basketball is Taiwan's other major sport. Taiwan participates in international sporting organizations and events under the name of " Chinese Taipei " due to its political status.

In , Taiwan hosted two international sporting events on the island. The World Games were held in Kaohsiung between 16 and 26 July Taipei hosted the 21st Summer Deaflympics in September of the same year.

Furthermore, Taipei hosted the Summer Universiade in Taekwondo has become a mature and successful sport in Taiwan in recent years.

In the Olympics, Chen Shih-hsin and Chu Mu-yen won the first two gold medals in women's flyweight event and men's flyweight event, respectively.

Subsequent taekwondo competitors such as Yang Shu-chun have strengthened Taiwan's taekwondo culture. Taiwan has a long history of strong international presence in table tennis.

Chen Pao-pei was a gold medalist in the women's singles at the Asian Table Tennis Championships in and gold medalist with Chiang Tsai-yun in the women's doubles and women's team events.

In lawn tennis , Hsieh Su-wei is the country's most successful player, having been ranked inside the top 25 in singles in the WTA rankings.

They won their 13th WTA tournament together at the Eastbourne International , [] the second-highest number of wins for a pair of sisters after the Williams sisters.

Taiwan is also a major Asian country for Korfball. She is the youngest player ever, male or female, to win five major championships and was ranked number 1 in the Women's World Golf Rankings for consecutive weeks from to Taiwan's strength in badminton is demonstrated by the current world No.

The standard Gregorian calendar is used for most purposes in Taiwan. The year is often denoted by the Minguo era system which starts in , the year the ROC was founded.

The East Asian date format is used in Chinese. Prior to standardisation in , the official calendar was a lunisolar system , which remains in use today for traditional festivals such as the Lunar New Year , the Lantern Festival , and the Dragon Boat Festival.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Republic of China disambiguation. For other uses, see Taiwan disambiguation.

Country in East Asia. Show globe island of Taiwan highlighted. Show map of Taiwan dark green with ROC constitutional territorial claims as interpreted by the Kuomintang light green.

Website taiwan. See the History of China article for historical information in mainland China before Main article: Taiwan under Qing rule.

Main article: Taiwan under Japanese rule. Main article: Republic of China — See also: Martial law in Taiwan and Taiwan Miracle. See also: Politics of the Republic of China.

Main article: Geography of Taiwan. Main article: Geology of Taiwan. Main article: Political status of Taiwan. See also: Cross-Strait relations.

Main article: Foreign relations of Taiwan. See also: Taiwan independence and Chinese Unification. Emblem of the Kuomintang , the main Pan-Blue Coalition party.

Main articles: Taiwanese identity and Chinese nationalism. Main article: Administrative divisions of Taiwan. New Taipei. Hsinchu County.

Chiayi County. Taiwan Province. Lienchiang Matsu. Fujian Province. Taiwan Strait. South China Sea. East China Sea. Pescadores Channel.

Bashi Channel. Philippine Sea Pacific Ocean. Main article: Republic of China Armed Forces. See also: Republic of China Military Academy.

Main articles: Economy of Taiwan and Economic history of Taiwan. Main article: Transportation in Taiwan. Main article: Demographics of Taiwan.

Main article: List of cities in Taiwan. Largest cities and special municipalities in Taiwan source. Main articles: Taiwanese people , Han Taiwanese , and Taiwanese indigenous peoples.

Main article: Languages of Taiwan. Main article: Religion in Taiwan. Buddhists Unaffiliated Christians 5. Others This section needs to be updated.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. November Main article: Healthcare in Taiwan. In-patient care Ambulatory care Laboratory tests Prescription and over-the-counter drugs Dental services Mental Illness Traditional Chinese medicine Home care Preventative services check-ups, prenatal care, pap smears.

Main articles: Culture of Taiwan and Cultural history of Taiwan. See also: Taiwanese Wave. Main article: Sports in Taiwan. Main article: Minguo calendar.

See also: Chinese calendar and Public holidays in Taiwan. Taiwan portal Islands portal. Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 1 November Taipei Times.

Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 22 May Executive Yuan, R. Retrieved 31 May The World Factbook.

United States Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 6 May Taiwan Today. Retrieved 15 March National Statistics, Republic of China Taiwan.

Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 26 December Retrieved 26 November International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 29 May Government and Politics in Taiwan. London: Routledge. Moreover, its status as a vibrant democratic state has earned it huge international sympathy and a generally positive image.

Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 10 July World Economic Outlook, April , p. Archived from the original PDF on 21 April Retrieved 22 February Social Indicators Research.

Archived from the original Excel on 11 August Retrieved 12 November United Nations Development Programme.

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Retrieved 20 September Party Politics in Taiwan. In Achen, Christopher H. The Taiwan Voter. University of Michigan Press. The Republic of China Yearbook Archived from the original PDF on 14 May Sketches from Formosa.

London: Marshall Brothers. The true derivation of the name "Taiwan" is actually from the ethnonym of a tribe in the southwest part of the island in the area around Ping'an.

As early as , a Dutch missionary referred to this group as Taiouwang. From the name of the tribe, the Portuguese called the area around Ping'an as Tayowan, Taiyowan, Tyovon, Teijoan, Toyouan, and so forth.

Indeed, already in his ship's log of , the Dutchman Cornelis Reijersen referred to the area as Teijoan and Taiyowan. Tainan City Government.

Taipei: National Palace Museum. April Retrieved 15 July Retrieved 16 June Office of the President of the Republic of China Taiwan.

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Retrieved 1 September The sovereignty was Japanese until The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in , as a military occupation.

American Journal of International Law. After occupying Taiwan in as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in , abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan.

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